Official Name: People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
Al-Jumhuriyah al-Jaza'iriyah ad-Dimugratiyah ash-Sha'biyah

Capital: Algiers (Alger)

Anthem: Kassaman (We Pledge)

Demonym: Algerian

Currency: Algerian Dinar

Location: Northern coast of Africa

Total Land Area: 2,381,741 sq. km

Population: 33,2 millions (January 2006)

Ethnic Groups: 99% Arab-Berber, less than 1% European

Languages: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects

Religions: 99% Sunni Muslim (state religion), 1% Christian and Jewish

Government Type: Republic

Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France)

Natural Resources: Crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc, gold

Major Industries: Petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining

Exports: Petroleum, natural gas, and petroleum products 97%

Imports: Capital goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods

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Official Name: State of Bahrain, Duwlat al-Bahrayn

Capital: Al-Manamah

Anthem: Bahrainona (Our Bahrain)

Demonym: Bahraini

Currency: Bahrain Dinar

Location: Group of 35 islands situated in Western part of Arabian (Persian) Gulf

Total Land Area: 691 sq. km

Population: 698,585 (2005)

Ethnic Groups: 63% Bahraini, 19% Asian, 10% other Arab, 8% Iranian

Languages: Arabic, English, Farsi, Urdu

Religions: 70% Shi'a Muslim, 30% Sunni Muslim

Government Type: Constitutional hereditary monarchy

Independence: 15 August, 1971 (from UK)

Natural Resources: Oil, associated and non-associated natural gas, fish, pearls

Major Industries: Petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting and fabrication

Exports: Petroleum and petroleum products, aluminum, textiles

Imports: Crude oil, machinery, chemicals

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Official Name: Federal Islamic Republic of Comoros, Jumhuriyat al-Qumur al-Itihadiyah al-Islamiyah

Capital: Moroni

Anthem: Udzima wa ya Masiwa (Comorian), "The Union of the Great Islands"

Demonym: Comorian

Currency: Comorian Franc

Location: Southern Africa, group of islands at the northern mouth of the Mozambique Channel, between Madagascar and northern Mozambique.

Total Land Area: 2,235 sq. km

Population: 798,000 (2005)

Ethnic Groups: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Languages: Arabic (official), French (official), Shikomoro (blend of Swahili and Arabic)

Religions: Sunni Muslim 98%, Roman Catholic 2%

Government Type: Republic

Independence: 6 July 1975

Natural Resources: Vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, coconuts, bananas, copra, tapioca.

Major Industries: Tourism, perfume distillation.

Exports: Vanilla, ylang-ylang, cloves, perfume oil, copra.

Imports: Rice and other foods, consumer goods, petroleum products, cement, transport equipment.

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Official Name: Republic of Djibouti, Republique de Djibouti

Capital: Djibouti

Anthem: Djibouti

Demonym: Djiboutian

Currency: Djibouti Franc

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia.

Total Land Area: 23,200 sq km

Population: 793,000 (2005)

Ethnic Groups: Somali 60%, Afar 35%, French, Arab, Ethiopian and Italian 5%

Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar

Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%

Government Type: Republic

Independence: 27 June 1977

Natural Resources: Geothermal area

Major Industries: Construction, agriculture, salt

Exports: Hides and skins, coffee

Imports: Foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products

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Official Name: Arab Republic of Egypt, Jumhuriat Misr Al Arabiyah

Capital: Cairo

Anthem: Bilady, Bilady, Bilady

Demonym: Egyptian

Currency: Egyptian Pound

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and Gaza strip, the red Sea and north of Sudan.

Total Land Area: 1, 001,449 sq. km

Population: 77,505,756 (2005)

Ethnic Groups: Egyptians, Bedouins and Berbers 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian and other European (Italian and French) 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes.

Religions: Muslim (Sunni mostly) 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6%

Government Type: Republic

Independence: 28 February 1922

Natural Resources: Crude oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, phosphates, manganese

Major Industries: Textiles, food processing, tourism

Exports: Crude oil, petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals

Imports: Machinery, foods, chemical, wood products, fuel

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Official Name: Palestinian Authority

Demonym: Palestinian

Location: Located on the Western edge of Asia and the Eastern extremity of the Mediterranean Sea. It is bounded by Lebanon, Syria, the Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula and Jordan

Total Land Area: 10,162 Km2

Population: Estimated to 4,892,000, some are living in the occupied territories, and others are living either in Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Jordan, Iraq, Gulf States, Europe or Latin America

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Official Name: Republic of Iraq, Al-Jumhuriyah al Iraqiyah

Capital: Baghdad

Anthem: Mawtini


Currency: Iraqi Dinar

Location: Bordering Arabian/Persian Gulf between Iran, Kuwait, Turkey, Syria and Jordan

Total Land Area: 438,317 sq. km

Population: 26,783,383 (2006)

Ethnic Groups: Arab 80%, Kurdish 20%, Turcoman, Assyrian and other 5%

Languages: Arabic, Kurdish, Assyrian, Armenian, English is widely understood among upper and middle classes

Religions: Muslim 97% (Shi'a 65%, Sunni 37%), Christian and other 3%

Government Type: Currently and Interim Government (appointed on 1 June 2004 after the collapse of the previous Republic under Saddam Hussein's command)

Independence: 3 October 1932 from the United Kingdom

Natural Resources: Crude oil, natural gas, phosphates, sulpher

Major Industries: Petroleum, textile, shoes

Exports: Crude oil, crude materials, food and live animals

Imports: Food, medicine

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Official Name: The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, Al-Mamlaka al-Urdunniyya al-Hashimiyya

Capital: Amman

Anthem: As-Salam al-Malaki al-Urdoni

Demonym: Jordanian

Currency: Jordanian Dinar

Location: Northwest of Saudi Arabia between Israel, Syria, Iraq

Total Land Area: 89,342 sq. km.

Population: 5,924,000 (2007)

Ethnic Groups: Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), English widely understood among upper and middle classes

Religions: Summin Muslim 92%, Christian 1%, other 2% (Shi'a Muslims and Druze)

Government Type: Constitutional monarchy

Independence: 25 May 1946 from United Kingdom

Natural Resources: Phosphates, potash, shale oil

Major Industries: Phosphates, mining, petroleum refining, cement

Exports: Clothing, phosphates, fertilizers, potash, vegetables, pharmaceuticals

Imports: Crude oil, textile, fabrics, machinery, transport equipment

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Official Name: State of Kuwait, Dawlat al-Kuwayt

Capital: Kuwait

Anthem: Al-Nasheed al-Watani

Demonym: Kuwaiti

Currency: Kuwaiti Dinar

Location: Bordering the Arabian/Persian Gulf, between Iraq and Saudi Arabia

Total Land Area: 17,818 sq km.

Population: 3,100,000 (2006)

Ethnic Groups: Kuwaiti 45%, other Arab 35%, South Asian 9%, Iranian 4%, other 7%

Languages: Arabic (official), English widely spoken

Religions: Muslim 85% (Sunni 70%, Shi'a 30%), Chrisitan, Hindu and other 15%

Government Type: Constitutional hereditary emirate

Independence: 19 June 1961 from the United Kingdom

Natural Resources: Petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas

Major Industries: Petroleum, petrochemical, desalinization

Exports: Oil and refined products, fertilizers

Imports: Food, construction material, vehicles and parts, clothing

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Official Name: Republic of Lebanon, Al-Jumhuriyah al-Lubnaniyah

Capital: Beirut

Anthem: Kulluna lil watan lil 'ula lil 'alam

Demonym: Lebanese

Currency: Lebanese pound, Livre Libanaise

Location: Bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Israel and Syria

Total Land Area: 10,452 sq. km

Population: 3,925,502 (2007)

Ethnic Groups: Arab 95%, Armenian 4%, other 1%

Languages: Arabic (official), French, English, Armenian

Religions: Muslim 59.7% ( Sunni, Shia, and Druze) and 39% are Christians (mostly Maronites, Greek Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, Melkite Greek Catholics, Assyrian Church of the East, Chaldean Catholic), other 1%

Government Type: Republic

Independence: November 22, 1943

Natural Resources: Limestone, iron ore, salt, water surplus state in a water-deficit region

Major Industries: Banking, food processing, textiles

Exports: Authentic jewelry, inorganic chemicals, fruit, tobacco, construction minerals and textile fibers

Imports: Petroleum products, cars, medicinal products, clothing, meat and live animals

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Official Name: Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Al Jamahiriyah al Arabiyah al Libiyah ash-sha'biyah al Ishtirakiyah al Uzma

Capital: Tripoli

Anthem: Allahu Akbar, God is the Greatest

Demonym: Libyan

Currency: Libyan Dinar

Location: Northern Africa Bordering the Mediterranean sea between Egypt and Tunisia

Total Land Area: 1,759,540 km²

Population: 5,670,688 (2006)

Ethnic Groups: Berber and Arab 97%, Greeks, Maltese, Italians, Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, Tunisians

Languages: Arabic, Italian, English are widely understood in the major cities

Religions: Sunni Muslim 97%

Government Type: A state of the masses (Jamahiriya), governed by the populace through local councils.

Independence: 24 December 1951 from Italy

Natural Resources: Crude oil, natural gas, gypsum

Major Industries: Petroleum, food processing, textiles

Exports: Crude oil, refined petroleum products, natural gas

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Official Name:
Mauritanian Islamic Republic
Al Jumhuriyah al Islamiyah al Muritaniyah





Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Senegal and Western Sahara

Total Land Area:
1,030,700 km²

3,069,000 (2005)

Ethnic Groups:
Mixed Maur/black 40%, Moor 30%, black 30%

Arabic, Pulaar, Soninke, French, Hassaniya, Wolof

Muslim 100%

Government Type:
Parliamentary republic

November 28, 1960 from France

Natural Resources:
Iron Ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate

Major Industries:
Fishing, fish processing, mining or iron ore and gypsum

Iron ore, fish and fish products, gold

Machinery and equipment, petroleum products, capital goods, foodstuff

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Official Name: Kingdom of Morocco, Al Mamlakah al Maghribiyah

Capital: Rabat

Anthem: Allah, al Watan, al Malik (God, Nation, King)

Demonym: Moroccan

Currency: The Dirham

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, between Algeria and Western Sahara

Total Land Area: 446,550 km²

Population: 33,241,259 (2005)

Ethnic Groups: Arab-Berber 99.1%, Other 0.7%, Jewish 0.2%

Languages: Arabic, Berber dialects, French

Religions: Muslim 98.7%, Christian 1.1%, Jewish 0.2%

Government Type: Constitutional monarchy

Independence: March 2, 1956 from France

Natural Resources: Phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead, zinc, fish, salt

Major Industries: Phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing, leather goods

Exports: Clothing, fish, inorganic chemicals, transistors, crude minerals, fertilizers, petroleum products, fruits, vegetables

Imports: Crude petroleum, textile fabrics, telecommunications equipment, wheat, gas, plastics

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Official Name: Sultanate of Oman, Saltanat Uman

Capital: Muscat

Anthem: Nasheed as-Salaam as-Sultani

Demonym: Omani

Currency: Omani Riyal

Location: Arabian Peninsula, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman and the Arabian/Persian Gulf between Yemen and UAE

Total Land Area: 309,500 km²

Population: 3,204,800 (2005)

Ethnic Groups: Arab, Balochi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan), African

Languages: Arabic, English, Balochi, Urdu, Indian

Religions: Ibadhi Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu

Government Type: Monarchy

Independence: 1651 from Portugal

Natural Resources: Crude oil, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone

Major Industries: Crude oil refining and production, natural gas production, construction

Exports: Petroleum, fish, metals, textiles

Imports: Machinery, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, livestock, lubricants

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Official Name: Dawlat Qatar, (State of Qatar)

Capital: Doha

Anthem: As Salam al Amiri

Demonym: Qatari

Currency: The Qatari Riyal

Location: Located in the Arab Peninsula bordering the Arabic/Persian Gulf and Saudi Arabia

Total Land Area: 11,437 km²

Population: 841,000 (2007)

Ethnic Groups: Arab 40%, Pakistani 18%, Indian 18%, Iranian 10%, other 14%

Languages: Arabic, and English is commonly used as a second language

Religions: Muslim 95%

Government Type: Constitutional Monarchy

Independence: September 3, 1971 from the United Kingdom

Natural Resources: Crude oil, natural gas, fish

Major Industries: Crude oil production and refining, fertilizers, petrochemicals

Exports: Liquefied natural gas, petroleum products, fertilizers, steel

Imports: Machinery and transport equipment, food, chemicals

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Official Name: Al-Mamlaka al-Arabiyya As-Sa'udiyya
(Kingdom of Saudi Arabia)

Capital: Riyadh

Anthem: Aash al Malik (Long Live the King)

Demonym: Saudi

Currency: The Saudi Riyal

Location: Located in the Arabian Peninsula bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea and North Yemen

Total Land Area: 2,149,690 km²

Population: 24,735,000 (2007)

Ethnic Groups: Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%

Languages: Arabic

Religions: Muslim 100%

Government Type: Absolute Monarchy

Independence: September 23 1932 (from the United Kingdom)

Natural Resources: Crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper

Major Industries: Crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals

Exports: Petroleum and petroleum products 90%

Imports: Machinery and equipment, food, chemical, motor vehicles, textiles

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Official Name: Jumhuriat al-Somal al-Dimocrattia, Somali Democratic Republic

Capital: Mogadishu

Anthem: Somalia Hanolato, Long Live Somalia

Demonym: Somali

Currency: Somali shilling

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia

Total Land Area: 637,661 km²

Population: 10,700,000 (2003)

Ethnic Groups: Somali 85%, bantuand other non-Somali

Languages: Somali, Arabic, Italian, English

Religions: Sunni Muslim

Government Type: Transitional Federal

Independence: July 1, 1960 (from the United Kingdom and Italy)

Natural Resources: Uranium, largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, gypsum, bauxite

Major Industries: Small industries, sugar refining, textiles, petroleum refining

Exports: Livestock, bananas, fish, charcoal, scrap metal

Imports: Manufactures, petroleum products, food construction materials

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Official Name: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan, Republic of Sudan

Capital: Khartoum

Anthem: Nahnu Jund Allah Jund Al-Watan, We are the Army of God and of Our Land

Demonym: Sudanese

Currency: Sudanese Pound

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea

Total Land Area: 2,505,813 km²

Population: 36,992,490 (2006)

Ethnic Groups: Black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%

Languages: Arabic, Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, Sudanic Languages, English

Religions: Sunni Muslim 70%, indigenous beliefs 25%, Christian 5%, (mostly in the South)

Government Type: The New Sudanese National Unity Government

Independence: January 1, 1956 (from Egypt and U.K.)

Natural Resources: Modest reserves of crude oil, iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc

Major Industries: Cotton ginning, textiles, cement

Exports: Oil and petroleum products, cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, Arabic gum, sugar

Imports: Food, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals, textiles, wheat

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Official Name: Al-Jumhuriyah al-Arabiyah as-Surriyah, Syria Arab Republic

Capital: Damascus

Anthem: Homat al-Diyar
(Guardians of the Land)

Demonym: Syrian

Currency: Syrian Pound

Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean sea, between Lebanon and Turkey

Total Land Area: 185,180 km²

Population: 20,314,747 (2007)

Ethnic Groups: Arab 90.3%, Kurds, Armenians, and others 9.7%

Languages: Arabic, Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian widely understood, French, English somewhat understood

Religions: Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawite, Druze and other Muslim sects 16%, Christians 10%, Jewish (tiny communities)

Government Type: Republic

Independence: January 17, 1946 from France

Natural Resources: Crude oil, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores

Major Industries: Textile, food processing, beverages

Exports: Crude oil, petroleum products, fruits and vegetable, cotton fiber, clothing, meat and wheat

Imports: Machinery and transport equipment, electric power machinery, food and livestock, metal and metal products, chemicals and chemical products, plastics, yarn and paper

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Official Name: Al-Jumhuriyah al-Tunisiyah, Republic of Tunisia

Capital: Tunis

Anthem: Humat Al-Hima (Defenders of the Homeland)

Demonym: Tunisian

Currency: Tunisian Dinar

Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Algeria and Libya

Total Land Area: 163,610 km²

Population: 10,102,000 (2005)

Ethnic Groups: Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1%

Languages: Arabic, French.

Religions: Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish and other 1%

Government Type: Republic

Independence: March 20, 1956 from France

Natural Resources: Crude oil, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc, salt

Major Industries: Petroleum, mining

Exports: Textile, mechanical goods, phosphates and chemicals and agricultural products

Imports: Textiles, machinery and equipment, chemicals and food

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Official Name: Al-Imarat al-Arabiyah al-Muttahidah, United Arab Emirates

Capital: Abu Dhabi

Anthem: Ishy Bilady (Long Live my Nation)

Demonym: Emirati

Currency: UAE Dirham

Location: Middle East, bordering the Arabic/Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, between Oman and Saudi Arabia

Total Land Area: 83,600 km²

Population: 4,496,000 (2005)

Ethnic Groups: Emirati 19%, other Arabs and Iranian 23%, South Asian 50%, other expatriates 8% (note less than 20% are UAE citizens (1982)

Languages: Arabic, Persian, English, Hindi and Urdu

Religions: Muslim 96%, Christian, Hindu and other 4%

Government Type: Federal constitutional monarchy

Independence: December 2, 1971

Natural Resources: Crude oil, natural gas

Major Industries: Petroleum, fishing, petrochemical

Exports: Crude oil 45%, natural gas, dried fish, dates

Imports: Machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food

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Official Name: Al-Jumhuriyah al-Yamaniyah, Republic of Yemen

Capital: Sanaa

Anthem: Al-Watani

Demonym: Yemeni

Currency: Yemeni Riyal

Location: Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia

Total Land Area: 527,968 km²

Population: 20,975,000 (2005)

Ethnic Groups: Arab (predominant), Afro Arabs, south Asians, Europeans

Languages: Arabic

Religions: Muslims, small numbers of Jewish, Christians, and Hindu

Government Type: Republic

Independence: May 22, 1990

Natural Resources: Copper deposits, oil was discovered in 1972. It is known that further rich mineral deposits exist, chiefly of zinc, iron, lead, gold, silver, copper, sulphur and nickel, iron deposits, salt

Major Industries: Manufacturing industries in Northern Yemen are light. These industries produce cement, paints, metal and cotton products. Other local industries consist of tanning, spinning, weaving and handicrafts.

Exports: Crude oil, coffee, dried and slated fish

Imports: Food and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals

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